Subsurface Spatial PlanningCopyright: © IFM
Both underground and open-pit mining projects are of spatial significance, which overlap each other with different underground and surface forms of usage such as drinking water production, tunnel constructions, and construction projects with deep foundations. Related to mining a form of usage of subsurface cavities, apart from the production of mineral resources, are the storage of natural gas and oil and the disposal of different types of waste such as residual materials from the chemical industry as well as spent nuclear fuel.
The constructive management between different usages of the underground and the surface requires, due to the complexity of connected issues and possible influences, a comprehensive approach to achieving a systematic interaction. For purposes of an overall approach, the term 'subsurface spatial planning' will be implemented.
All spatial data in relation with the production of mineral resources are pooled within the mine surveying departments of mining companies and mining authorities. Therefore, mine surveyors are predestined for the processing of this challenging task.
The utilization of the underground is of increasing importance and is of high interest of the common good as well as future generations.
Subsurface spatial planning requires expertise in geomonitoring, geohazards, geomodeling, geodata management, and judicial aspects concerning mine subsidence:
- Projection and monitoring of ground- and rock movements related to mineral resources
- Surveying and registration of deposits
- Monitoring and preservation measurements
- Analysis and prognosis of impacts related to mining activities
- Registration of ground movements both on and below surface
- Avoidance of geohazards by optimized extraction planning
- static and kinematic 3D underground modeling
- Support of a sustainable extraction planning for a more efficient exploitation of the existing reserves
- Exploration and evaluation of the underground as well as reserve calculation of deposits
- Gathering, processing, storage and analysis of spatial data
- Visualization of gathered data via cartographic representations which can be utilized for purposes of orientation, navigation, documentation and planning
- Processing of licensing procedures and issues
- Optimization of existing regulations on utilization of subsurface spaces
- Mediation in case of conflicts of interest regarding the utilization of subsurface spaces
- Simulations of the utilization of subsurface spaces
- Planning of subsurface infrastructure
- Concepts for final disposal
- Licensing procedures related to subsurface spatial planning
Subsurface spatial planning comprises the core competences of Mine Surveying:
- Mining subsidence engineering
- Spatial data management and mapping
- Surveying and measurements
- Deposit processing
- Approval procedures.